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Recent Articles

Design Science personnel often write articles that appear in peer-reviewed journals and trade magazines, or give presentations at conferences. This page provides links to some of our recent articles, which fall into these categories:


Daisy 3: A Standard for Accessible Multimedia Books [PDF]
  Dennis Leas, gh, LLC
Emilia Persoon, Dedicon
Neil Soiffer, Design Science
Michael Zacherle, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
IEEE Multimedia, 2008, Volume 15, #4, pp28-37.
  The DAISY format is a widely adopted format for representing accessible content. This paper gives an overview of DAISY. It describes the history of DAISY books, what a DAISY book looks like on the inside and on the outside, and how DAISY books are created. The paper is a general overview, but there is an emphasis on how math relates to each of the topics. The paper concludes with reports about what readers think about using DAISY books.

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How to Make Math Accessible the DAISY Way
  Dr. Neil Soiffer, Senior Scientist at Design Science, Inc.
Steve Noble, Director of Accessibility Policy at Design Science, Inc.
Presented at ATIA 2007
  Until recently, there was no way to represent math in DAISY and NIMAS formats except as images with alt tags. However, DAISY has approved the addition of math tags based on the W3C MathML standard, greatly increasing the accessibility of math for those with print-related disabilities (blindness, low vision, and some learning disabilities such as dyslexia).
Making Math Accessible through Shaping Education Policy
  Steve Noble, Director of Accessibility Policy at Design Science, Inc.
Presented at the Technology and Persons with Disabilities Conference (CSUN 2007)
  This article highlights the need for accessible math instructional content and assessments and describe the how participants can become effective advocates for changing education policy that will make accessible math a reality in the classroom.
Math Accessibility as Public Policy: Why it Matters to Students with Disabilities
  Steve Noble, Director of Accessibility Policy at Design Science, Inc.
Presented at the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) 2007 Convention & Expo
  This article explores why math accessibility is vital in educating students with disabilities, including access to instructional content and assessments.
MathPlayer: Web-based Math Accessibility [PDF]
  Dr. Neil Soiffer, Senior Scientist at Design Science, Inc.
Presented at The Eighth International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers & Accessibility (ASSETS 2006)
  MathPlayer is a plug-in to Microsoft’s Internet Explorer that renders MathML visually. It also contains a number of features that make mathematical expressions accessible to people with print-disabilities. MathPlayer integrates with many screen readers including JAWS and Window-Eyes, and it also works with a number of TextHELP!'s learning disabilities products.
No Child Left Behind and Accessible Math: Where Are We Now?
  Steve Noble, Director of Accessibility Policy at Design Science, Inc.
Presented at ATIA 2007
  A variety of national indicators (such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress) shows that students with disabilities are way behind their peers without disabilities when it comes to math. This article will examine the current best practices for math accessibility to ensure compliance with NCLB, and present results of a study conducted to examine how some States are addressing accessibility in State math assessments.
Universal Design for Math Learning: Bridging the Technology and Policy Divide
  Steve Noble, Director of Accessibility Policy at Design Science, Inc.
Presented at the Technology-based Learning with Disability conference (LWD-07)
  This paper attempts to make fundamental connections between the technological capabilities now available for creating universally designed math, and the body of public policy which demands that educational offerings be made accessible to students with disabilities. The premise to be examined is that making math accessible is as much a public policy issue as it is a technological one.
Universally Designed Math: Positive Implications for Students with Learning Disabilities
  Steve Noble, Director of Accessibility Policy at Design Science, Inc.
Presented at the Learning Disabilities Association 44th Annual Conference
  This article provides a background in the concept of universal design for mainstream math materials that can provide rich content and learning supports for students with learning disabilities. The author shows why support for math accessibility within both policy and practice is vital to the learning disability community.

Math and science communication

Making the Most of the New Math Domains in DITA 1.3
  Autumn Cuellar, MathML Evangelist at Design Science, Inc.
An OASIS DITA Adoption Technical Committee Publication, 17 April 2015
  This paper provides an explanation of the elements of the equation domain, gives an introduction to the MathML domain, covers benefits and drawbacks of MathML in DITA, and finally gives an overview of tools to aid you in adding MathML support to your DITA documents today.
Data Beyond Words - The Future of Scientific Communication
  Paul R. Topping, President & CEO of Design Science, Inc.
Scientific Computing World, August 2004
  The author describes a fundamental change in how scientific ideas are being communicated. For hundreds of years, formal scientific communication could be characterized as the publication and exchange of papers consisting of words, mathematical equations, and pictures. Although new technologies have made it possible for scientific communications to include other kinds of content - movies, sounds, spreadsheets, databases - generally, scientists have not taken advantage of them before. Now strong forces are coming to bear on authors, publishers, and readers that will work together to change how the face of scientific publishing.
MathType 6.0's TEX input for MS Word and Wikipedia [PDF]
  Paul R. Topping, President & CEO of Design Science, Inc.
Presented at TUG 2007, The 28th Annual Meeting of the TeX Users Group
  The author explains how MathType users can use the MathType 6's TEX input mode to create equations, as well as the ability to copy equations out of the thousands of Wikipedia pages containing equations for use in educational and research authoring.


The Importance of MathML to Mathematics Communication [PDF]
  Dr. Robert Miner, Director of Product Development at Design Science, Inc.
Notices of the American Mathematical Society, May 2005 (vol. 52 # 5)
  MathML is the markup language used for displaying mathematics on web pages and other html documents. The author describes the current structure and features of MathML and how its usage is affecting and can impact mathematical communication.
A Myriad of Uses for MathML [PDF]
  Dr. Robert Miner, Director of New Product Development at Design Science, Inc.
Originally published in "Arbortext: XML Publishing Network", July 2005
  The author discusses how a number of enterprises are using MathML in their XML publishing workflows to simplify the historically challenging and arduous task of typesetting science and math content.  Dr. Miner provides insight into a number of innovative ways MathML is being employed in enterprise publishing and the benefits it brings to these XML workflows.

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